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Hammarby Sjöstad Project
Berndt Björlenius, Stockholm Water Company
Project Leader, Hammarby Local Sewage Treatment Plant I
E-mail: berndt.bjorlenius@stockhomvatten.se:


Background
As part of Environment 2000, the City of Stockholm is conducting an ambitious urban redevelopment project in several areas of the city. The project has been divided among three areas of the city, one newly and two already constructed zones. One area is Hammarby Sjöstad, previously a run down port and industrial area that is being transformed into a modern, ecologically sustainable residential district. Initiated in the early 1990s, the Hammarby Sjöstad Project will be completed in 2010; as of June 2001, approximately 200 residents have moved into the residential area.

Goal
The project goals include using the best applied technology for new building design to reduce the environmental impact (water, energy, and waste) of the new buildings by 50 percent when compared with normal construction. The Hammarby Sjöstad Project is intended to set up its own local sewage treatment plant and system for combined collection of food waste. The target for the water and sewage component of the project is a 50 percent reduction in water use in residential apartments when compared with new inner city production apartments.

Motivation
The Hammarby Sjöstad Project grew out of the long term environmental goals of the City of Stockholm established in the spring of 1995 and applicable to the entire city. The project is intended to minimize environmental impact by focusing on the whole resource management system, including exploring land use planning and energy consumption. Three organizations in the City of Stockholm—Birka Energi, the Stockholm Water Company, and the City of Stockholm Waste Management Administration—jointly developed a comprehensive model for energy, waste, and water management known as the Hammarby Model.

Methodology
The Hammarby Sjöstad Project will identify ways to minimize energy and water consumption as well as waste production. The project will have a local wastewater treatment plant where waste heat (biogas) will be extracted from the sewage treatment process. To lessen the load on this plant, surface water will be cleaned in a separate plant. In addition, the district heating plant will produce energy with a strong emphasis on using renewable fuels.

About the Program

The Hammarby Sjöstad Project’s overall water management program addresses both supply and demand efficiencies through:

• Strategies for encouraging efficient use of water by the residents, including promotion of reduced flow water equipment
• Water efficiency initiatives for Stockholm Water Company’s sewage treatment, which will focus on both water and energy elements.

Development Process
Project team leaders divided construction plans for the treatment plants into two phases during a 5 year period, starting in 2000. Phase I will consist of a pilot project for a small scale sewage treatment plant. The plant will serve approximately 1,000 people, using best available technologies. After Phase I is successfully completed, the project team will commence plans for construction of a larger plant (Phase II). The estimated investment budget for this water management program is 21.5 million Swedish kronor (US$1.95 million).

The management structure for coordinating the efforts of the water and energy components of the local sewage treatment plant is divided into two principal groups. The first team, the Sewage Treatment Plant Steering Committee, comprises a project leader from Stockholm Water Company and a large network of professionals. Such professionals include technical experts from research institutions, consultants, and technical contractors, who review process specific, monitoring, and information technology subprojects. Since March 2001, this committee has been meeting on a monthly basis to review its progress toward meeting the project’s goals. The second team comprises vice presidents of the three technical organizations working on the project, namely Birka Energi, Stockholm Water Company, and the City of Stockholm Waste Management Administration. This team is responsible for general implementation of the Hammarby Model regarding sewage treatment, energy supply, and handling of solid waste. The team meets every two months to review recommendations set forth by the Sewage Treatment Plant Steering Committee.

Monitoring and Verification of Savings
Throughout the life of the project, monitoring and verification systems will be established on several levels to evaluate the success of the project. Due to the importance of Life Cycle Analysis for the development and evaluation phase of the Hammarby Sjöstad Project, management teams have devised a unique metric to help evaluate all activities. The Environmental Load Profile will evaluate different scenarios regarding design of technical infrastructure (water, heating, cooling, sewerage, and waste) as well as the lifestyles of the residents. The Sewage Treatment Plant Steering Committee has taken steps to build a monitoring station to measure the composition of the wastewater at the local sewage treatment plant. In addition, teams will monitor the residents’ consumption patterns for energy and water by using an individual measuring system for each apartment.